08. Manuscript Cover with Prajnaparamita Flanked by Buddhas

12th/13th Century
Gilt-copper repoussé
7½ by 26 3/8 in. (19 by 67 cm.)

Spink and Son Ltd., London, July 1, 1988
European Private Collection

Prajnaparamita (Perfection of Wisdom) is depicted at the center of this exquisitely-detailed cover and is flanked by enthroned Buddhas, including Amithaba at the far right.  The bead-work borders are surrounded by scrolls and floral motifs.  Compare the present example to a similar cover in Amy Heller, Tibetan Art: Tracing the Development of Spiritual Ideals and Art in Tibet 600-2000 A.D., 1999, no. 37, p. 63.  For another similar example in gilt-copper repousse in the Bordier Collection see Art Sacré du Tibet, Collection Alain Bordier, 2013, no. 52.

Indian monks and scholars were responsible for the dissemination of Buddhism in Tibet, largely due to the beautifully illustrated Buddhist texts that they brought to the country.  As early as the seventh century, these texts had begun to be translated from Sanskrit into Tibetan.  By the twelfth century, the Indian Sanskrit canon had been completely written in the Tibetan language.  For Tibetan Buddhists, books are a divine presence in which the Buddha lives and reveals himself, and they are venerated and handled with the utmost respect.

Primarily inspired by eastern Indian medieval book covers which consisted of two wooden covers on either side of a series of palm leaf or birch bark pages, Tibetan artists took license in their continuation of the tradition.  Tibetan manuscript covers were often larger in format than their Indian counterparts, largely due to the fact that their folios tended to be of strong paper which allowed for greater size.  Also, the covers were greatly diverse in their innovative and exuberant scrollwork designs.  It is only natural, given that the manuscript covers were meant to house sacred texts, that Tibetan artists were inspired to create truly beautiful and unique works such as the present example.  In turn, Tibetan innovations such as the covers’ large size and amount of embellishment later influenced the covers of Mongolian and Chinese books.